What is White Guava | All Information About White Guava | Health Benefits, Facts about White Guava|

We are going to provide you with all knowledge about white guava like its origin, facts, benefits, formation, and some scientific facts also.

Nature has a lot of wonderful foods hidden in its treasury. These foods are not only delicious to eat but also have a lot of health benefits with them. One such food is guava.  It is a quite common yet outstanding food that has hidden health benefits and ethnobotanical uses which we shall present further in this article.

Introduction to Guava

We all know how beneficial apples are for health. It is a common saying that “ An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” Unlike the popular food apple, Guava also has similar health benefits and is commonly referred to as “the poor man’s apple”

Scientific Details – Guava is commonly referred to as a medicinal plant of the family Myrtaceae. Its scientific name is Psidium guajava.

Habitat and Location – The plant is suited for both tropical and subtropical climates, thereby covering a wide range of areas around the globe. It can be found in almost all countries in tropical and subtropical regions. Commercial plantation of this plant requires little or no external care in its suited habitat as it is mostly a wild-growing plant.

Facts about White Guava

It is found in many countries like Mexico, Central America, Northern South America, India, Indonesia, and many other countries. As per reports, in 2022 India was the major producer of Guava with around 45% Guava of the total guava production in the world.

Native location and history – Guava was first found in Central America. It was the first found or native species of Central America. Colonial movements by the Spanish introduced this food to the Philippines and India. From there, via trade routes, it went to Arabian countries and Europe and now nearly every country in the tropical belt has a Guava plantation.

General Details of fruit – The Guava is green with a slight ovoid shape and is available year-round with maximum productivity in spring and minimum in May and June.

The Guava has two Types based on the color of its pulp.  

Guava
Pink Guava          White Guava
It does not have enough carotenoid to change its color and thus remain whiteNote: The change in color of the fruit pulp does not imply the difference in characteristics of the trees and neither the trees bearing different fruits are different species. They are the same and their morphology is also the same, just the color of the fruit pulp is different.
Note: The change in color of the fruit pulp does not imply the difference in characteristics of the trees and neither the trees bearing different fruits are different species. They are the same and their morphology is also the same, just the colour of the fruit pulp is different.

In this article, we shall specifically discuss the White Guava.

What is White Guava

White guava is basically a guava, which has a low concentration of carotenoids that is insufficient to provide color to its pulp.

There is a wide variety of white guava found across the globe. The different types of white guava are:

1) Tropical white guava – Mainly a naturally grown wild variety of guava that prevails on its own in tropical dense growths without any artificial care. The guava is nearly round, with a typical yellowish-green covering and sweet and aromatic white pulp.

2) White Mexican guava – The guava variety is native to Mexico and is also named “ Mexican cream guava” or simply “Mexican white”. The skin is slightly yellowish, and the pulp is sweet, and delicate creamy white in texture and appearance with few small seeds.

3) Thai White Guava – This variety of guava is mainly found in Thailand and is also called “ Jumbo fruit”. The Thai white guava has got this name due to its large-sized bulky fruits. This variety of guava is super large and has rugged green skin. The taste is mildly sweet and has a crunchiness like an apple. It contains a lot of seeds that are edible.

4) White Arabian guava – This variety of guava trees produces a lot of fruits and begins fruiting just at one year of age.

The shape is ovoid, and the skin color is a mixture of milky green and yellow. The flesh of this fruit is delightfully fragrant, sugary, and silky smooth to the touch.

5) White Indonesian guava This guava variety is native to Indonesia and has a normal fruit. The guavas are round, green, and have a white pulp with edible seeds.

6) White Peruvian guava – This guava variety is found in Peru and is one of the authentic and original guava varieties.

The fruit is large, has a milky green skin color and the pulp is white and sweet like honey and is almost seedless.

Health benefits of White Guava and Guava Tree

Guava is the fruit of the whole guava plant which is extremely beneficial, but the other accessory parts of the plant like roots, barks, leaves, and even the flowers are equally beneficial in terms of medicinal uses and have seen a massive use in ethnobotanical purposes since ages and is also a form of tropical medicine for many local tribes of tropical and subtropical regions, who do not have ready access to the modern world.

Health Benefits of White Guava

So, let’s know about the various benefits of white guava and its parts step by step.

1) A good source of minerals and vitamins and energy – The proximate analysis of a powdered sample of white guava showed that there is a low quantity of protein and fat in it but an abundance of carbohydrates that make it a good source of energy. It also showed the presence of vitamin A and vitamin C in it.

The metal analysis of the powdered sample showed the presence of nearly all metals screened for which include; magnesium, manganese, zinc, calcium, iron, sodium, and potassium. The quantitative analysis of these metals showed that their amount is below the tolerable upper intake level and within the recommended daily intake level in healthy individuals established by the Dietary Reference Intakes.

2)  A great source of antioxidants- White Guava is a great source of natural antioxidants that make the body toxin-free and slow the aging process. White Guavas are a great source of carotenoids and polyphenols, which are powerful antioxidant pigments that make them one of the most valuable plant foods available.

These compounds help to prevent cellular damage and have a range of health benefits, making white guavas a delicious and nutritious addition to any diet. The polyphenols decrease free radicals, thereby preventing arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, cataract, and overall inhibition of senescence of the body and skin.

Cancer cure- A study reported that guava leaf essential oil contains a high amount of terpenoids and this can strongly inhibit human cervical cancer cells. The guava leaf essential oil has a cytotoxic effect on human cervical cancer cells. Aqueous extracts of P.guava budding leaves have been shown to possess anti-prostate cancer activity in a cell line model.

The reference of the study is: Joseph B, Priya RM, Phytochemical and biopharmaceutical aspects of Psidium guajava (L.) essential oil: A review, Res J Med Plant, 2011, 5, 432-442

4) Insomnia cure – The guava leaf extract has shown central nervous system (CNS) depressant activity. It is also used as an antihypertensive. Due to the property of inhibiting disturbances in the central nervous system, guava leaf extract can cure insomnia, convulsions, and epilepsy.

5) Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties – The guava leaf exhibits good antibacterial properties against many test cultures like Staphylococcus, Shigella, Salmonella, Bacillus, E. coli, Clostridium, and Pseudomonas. It is believed that flavonoids extracted from guava leaves are believed to be responsible for antibacterial activity. Guhaverine and psydiolic acid are also responsible for their antibacterial property.

It is concluded that guava has a good curative effect on infantile rotavirus enteritis. The presence of the metabolites such as cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins, and alkaloids in P. It can be used as a drug against pathogenic bacteria. Alkaloids flavonoids are phenolic structures containing one carbonyl group complex with extracellular and soluble protein and with the bacterial cell wall, thus exhibiting antibacterial activity through these complexes.

An antimutagenic effect was observed in E. coli when exposed to gallocatechin isolated from the methanol extract of guava leaves. coli. The leaf-derived flavonoid compound, quercetin-3-O’Alpha-l’arabinopyranoside (guaijaverin), has demonstrated significant potential in the fight against plaque by effectively inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus mutants.

The leaf extract has an excellent capacity to form colored complexes with iron. Iron chelation therapy has been shown to be anti-parasitic, especially in African trypanosomiasis.

The mutagenicity of Salmonella typhimurium was enhanced by water and chloroform extracts of guava. Guava leaf extracts might be beneficial in treating acne, especially those that have anti-inflammatory activities.

6) Antidiarrhoeal –The antibacterial property of guava and its leaf also gives it a potential antidiarrheal property as most of the diarrhea is caused by bacterial infection.  The lectin compounds present in guava have the ability to attach themselves to E. coli bacteria. coli, preventing its adhesion to the intestinal wall and thus preventing infection and resulting diarrhea. Quercetin has several pharmacologic actions; this substance has the ability to hinder the movement of the intestines, decrease the permeability of capillaries within the abdominal cavity, and feature antioxidant properties that vary depending on its dosage.

7) Laxative – Ripe Guava has a lot of fiber in it and acts as a great source of laxative. Guava seed oil has tremendous medicative action against constipation and bloating.

8) Guava leaf as cough sedative – The leaf extracts of guava are used in many pharmaceutical preparations as cough sedatives. The extract from its leaves has been found to have an effective cough-suppressing property. Its ability to reduce the frequency of cough induced by capsaicin aerosol provides further evidence of its potent anticough activity.

9) Controls blood sugar level – Guava leaf extract has shown hypoglycemic activity in a study performed on lab rats. The hypoglycemic effect of plant extract was examined in normal and diabetic rats, using a streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes mellitus model. In the study, i.p. When given a dosage of 1 g/kg guava juice, both normal and diabetic mice experienced a significant reduction in blood sugar levels. This suggests that guava juice may be an effective treatment option for those with diabetes. The white guava or its juice has been documented to lower blood sugar levels during clinical trials.

The reference of the study is Chiwororo WD, Ojewole JA, Biphasic effect of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract on rat isolated vascular smooth muscles, J Smooth Muscle Res, 2008, 44(6), 217-229.

White Guava Benefits

10) Anti-stress and anxiety-reducing properties – The ethanol extracts of White Guava possess anti-stress and adaptogenic properties. It may be useful in the treatment of several disorders caused by stress by its immunostimulating, immunomodulator properties and also by enhancing the homeostatic mechanisms.

11) Use of guava leaf as pain relief –  The decoction or infusion of the leaves is used as febrifuge, antispasmodic, and rheumatism in India.

12) Versatile use of Guava tree bark –  The bark in the form of decoction and poultice is used as an astringent in the treatment of ulcers, wounds, and diarrhea in the Philippines while in Panama, Bolivia, and Venezuela, the bark is used in the treatment of dysentery and skin ailments. It has been traditionally used to help expel the placenta after childbirth and treat skin infections, vaginal hemorrhages, wounds, fever, dehydration, and respiratory problems.

13) Medicinal use in Tahiti and Samoa –  In general, the whole plant, or its shoots, are used in the form of infusion, decoction, and paste as skin tonic in Tahiti and Samoa, have traditionally used guava fruit as an analgesic to relieve menstrual pain, promote child delivery, prevent miscarriages, stop uterine bleeding, and treat wounds.

Ongoing Research and clinical trials of White Guava and its plant parts

 In two randomized human studies, the consumption of white guava for 12 weeks was shown to reduce blood pressure by an average of 8%, decrease total cholesterol level by 9%, decrease triglycerides by almost 8%, and increase HDL cholesterol by 8%. The effects were attributed to the high potassium and soluble fiber content of the fruit.       

A single-blind, controlled study was carried out to examine the effects that consuming guava fruit has on blood pressure and blood lipids in individuals with essential hypertension. The study was randomized to ensure accurate results and determine whether guava fruit has a positive impact on cardiovascular health. It is possible that increased consumption of white guava can cause a substantial reduction in blood pressure and blood lipids without decreasing HDL-cholesterol levels.

A double-blind clinical study of the effects of a Phytodrug (QG- 5) developed from guava leaf showed a decrease in the duration of abdominal pain, which is attributed to antispasmodic effect of quercetin present in the leaf extract.

Conclusion

Most of these studies confirm the plant’s and its fruits many uses as tropical herbal medicine. The white guava is also referred to as “The apple of the tropics” and has a long history of ethnobotanical uses. The fruit as well as its juice has great taste and nutritional benefits. Many of the traditional uses have been validated by scientific research. Toxicity studies in mice and other animal models as well as controlled human studies say guava leaves and fruits are safe and have no side effects.

The plant has been extensively studied regarding the pharmacological activity of its major components, and the results indicate potent anti-diarrheal, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antimicrobial, hypoglycemic, and antimutagenic activities. A number of chemicals isolated from plants like quercetin, guaijaverin, flavonoids, and galactose-specific lecithins have shown promising activity in many human trials.

Health Benefits of Guava Leaves

Quite a significant amount of work has been done on the pharmacological and biological activity and possible application of chemical compounds from the whole part of the plant. Hence, extensive investigation on its pharmacodynamics, kinetics, and proper standardization and clinical trials is needed to exploit their therapeutic utility to combat various diseases.

Reference of the whole article- A REVIEW ON THE MEDICINAL PLANT PSIDIUM GUAJAVA LINN. (MYRTACEAE) *Shirur Dakappa Shruthi 1,2, Adhikari Roshan1 Sanjay Sharma Timilsina1and Sajjekhan Sunita2

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